Major Units of Study

Tools of Chemistry : Scientists use consistent and significant notation when recording and sharing experimental data.

Topics Include : Measurement, Conversions, Scientific Method, Scientific Notation, Laboratory Equipment and Techniques
(Level 1 extensions include significant figures and SI Units.)

Properties of Matter : Physical and chemical properties reflect the nature of the interactions between molecules or atoms and can be used to classify and describe matter.

Topics Include : Physical and Chemical Properties, Mixtures and Pure Substances, States of Matter

Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry : Atomic models are used to explain atoms and help us understand the interaction of elements and compounds observed on a macroscopic scale. Nuclear chemistry deals with radioactivity, nuclear process, and nuclear properties. Nuclear reactions produce tremendous amounts of energy.

Topics Include : Development of Modern Atomic Theory, Conservation of Mass, Electron Configurations, Average Atomic Mass, Isotopes, Radioactive Decay, Transmutation Equations, Fission and Fusion. (Extensions for Levels 1 and 2 include The Law of Constant Composition and The Law of Multiple Proportions.)

Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry : In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Chemical equations represent the reaction and must be balanced. The conservation of atoms in a chemical reaction leads to the ability to calculate the amount of products formed and reactants used (stoichiometry).

Topics Include : Balancing Equations, Classifying Reactions, Molar Mass of Elements/Compounds, Percent Composition, Mole to Mole Stoichiometry, Mole to Mass Stoichiometry
(Extensions for Levels 1 and 2 include mass to mass, stoichiometry .empirical/molecular formulas. Percent yield and net ionic equations discussed in Level 1 only.)

States of Matter, Kinetic Molecular Theory, and Thermochemistry : The relative position of particles in a substance varies in solids, liquids, and gases. The behavior of gas particles can be modeled by Kinetic Molecular Theory. The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. The reorganization of atoms in chemical reactions results in the release or absorption of heat energy.

Topics Include : Phase Transitions, Endothermic/Exothermic Processes
(Extensions for Levels 1 and 2 include kinetic molecular theory, gas laws, entropy, conservation of energy, and Gibb’s free energy. Thermochemistry calculations are done with Level 1 only.)

Periodicity : Repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define families with similar properties. The periodic table displays this repeating pattern, which is related to an atom’s outermost electrons.

Topics Include : Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids, Reactivity, Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy, and Atom and Ion Size
( Extensions for Levels 1 and 2 include electronegativity.)

Chemical Bonding : Atoms bond with each other by transferring or sharing valence electrons to form compounds

Topics Include : Ionic and Covalent Bonding, Chemical Formulas and Valence Electrons, Lewis Dot Structures, Polar/Nonpolar Bonds, Naming Chemical Compounds
(Extensions for Levels 1 and 2 include VSEPR Theory and Intermolecular Forces.)

Solutions, Rates of Reaction, and Equilibrium : Solids, liquids, and gases dissolve to form solutions. Rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium are dynamic processes that are significant in many systems (biological, ecological, and geological).

Topics Include : Solutes and Solvents, Types of Solutions, Molarity, Effect of Temperature, Concentration, Surface Area, Pressure, and Mixing on Rate of Dissolving, Shifts in Equilibrium, Dilution Equations
(Extensions for Levels 1 and 2 include factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. Molality and rate laws discussed in level 1 classes only.)

Acids, Bases, and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions : Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial procedures to biological ones, from the laboratory to the environment. Oxidation-reduction reactions occur when one substance transfers electrons to another substance and constitutes a major class of chemical reactions.

Topics Include : Acid Base Theories, Hydrogen Concentration and pH, Common Acids and Bases.